Your Ultra.cc Linux Terminal - Helpful Commands for Learning Linux
The terminal is your gateway to the inner workings of your Ultra.cc slot. It is essentially a remote computer running Linux, and when you SSH into it, you are connecting to that computer's terminal.
A terminal is a powerful tool where you can execute written commands to perform many simple or even very complicated tasks. This guide will help you understand a few simple commands to get you started navigating and using the Linux terminal; it can also serve as a cheat sheet later down the track if you need to recall anything you may have forgotten.
In this section, we will detail the commands used to move between directories in Linux; we will also cover how to find your location and the structure of your slot.
The first thing you are going to want to do in your terminal is to navigate between directories. All tasks are performed within different directories, and your current directory affects how a command may run or how you may need to use a command.
When you first SSH into your slot, you will be in your personal home directory. This is the location of all your files; anything you wish to accomplish must be done within the home directory as this is the only folder you have read, write and execute permissions for. If, while navigating your terminal, you wish to return to your home directory, you can do so by typing
This brings us to the command you will likely find yourself using a large amount of the time;
cd. This command is used to navigate between different directories in Linux and stands for change directory. To use this command, you simply type
cd followed by the directory you wish to navigate to.
It is also worth noting that in Linux,
. refers to the current working directory and
.. refers to the directory above. This is useful in if you want to go back one directory you can type
cd .., or if you want to go back two you can use
cd ../.. and so on.
pwd command is used to show you the exact location you are currently in, fairly simple, really. Running
pwd will print the full path to your current working directory. Very useful for when you may be lost.
File and Directory Manipulation
At some point, you are going to want to move files/directories around, copy or delete them. Here we will cover the commands involved in achieving this.
mv command stands for move; you can use it to move a file or directory to another directory. It is as simple as using the command
mv [file or directory you wish to move] [where you wish to move it]. For example, if you wanted to move a directory called media to a directory called files you'd use the command
mv media files if, however, you wish to move all the files from the directory called media into the directory called files you'd use
mv media/* files this tells the operating system to move all the files (signified by
/*) located in media.
cp command stands for copy; it is used in much the same way as
mv; however, there are a few little details worth covering. The general Syntax is the same as
mv; if you wish to copy a file in your current directory named Movie1.mkv to a subdirectory called media you'd used the command
cp Movie1.mkv media. The difference comes when you wish to copy an entire directory, when you want to copy an entire directory, you need to tell the
cp command to copy recursively. This is signified with a
-r after the
cp. For example, if you wished to copy the directory called media to files similar to the previous example, you'd use the command
cp -r media files. Copying all the files within media to files is pretty much exactly the same;
cp media/* files. However, if there are any sub-directories within media that you also wish to copy, you again need to use the -r flag;
cp -r media/* files. The -r flag is used whenever you need to copy an entire directory.
The rm command stands for remove, it is used to delete files or directories you no longer wish to use. It is very important to keep in mind that there is no recycling bin in Linux, any files you delete are permanently lost. Syntax for rm is much the same as cp if you wish to remove a file named Movie1.mkv you'd simply type
rm Movie1.mkv. If you wish to remove an entire directory, once again, you need to use the
rm -r media would delete the entire media directory. If you wanted to remove all the files inside the media directory, you'd use
rm media/* or
rm -r media/* if there are directories inside the media.
unrar command can be used to manually decompress a rar file via SSH terminal. The steps to unrar a file are simple simply
cd to a path the rar file is in, for example
cd /path/to/rar and run
unrar x archive-name.rar This will unpack the rar file in the current folder check the content using the
For any commands, you need to find more information on; you can use the command
man [command]. This displays a manual page for the specified command.
Ultra.cc Specific Commands
When interacting with your slot through Secure Shell, you may wish to manipulate the applications we offer one-click installers for; to do this, you use the
Installing and Uninstalling Apps
To install an application, we can use the command
app-[appname] install. This can be helpful to gain further knowledge as to why certain installations are failing. When installing an application, you will be presented with an output in the SSH prompt showing either true or false.
Likewise, to uninstall an application, we can use the command
app-[appname] uninstall. This is especially useful in the case of an application saying it's installed while not being accessible from the UCP.
Stop, Start and Restarting Apps
To change the running state of an application we use
app-[appname] [start|stop|restart]. These commands will be useful for you throughout the usage of your USB slot for troubleshooting or further customize your experience.
Checking Used Space
To display your folder structure and space taken by individual files, the
ncdu -x command is included in every Ultra.cc slot. After a short scan largest items are displayed top, and size is in descending order
For further information regarding specific commands for a particular application run
app-[appname] help. This will provide all sub-commands available for the said app.